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§ 1030. Fraud and related activity in connection with computers

  • (a) Whoever -
    • (1) knowingly accesses a computer without authorization or exceeds authorized access, and by means of such conduct obtains information that has been determined by the United States Government pursuant to an Executive order or statute to require protection against unauthorized disclosure for reasons of national defense or foreign relations, or any restricted data, as defined in paragraph y. of section 11 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, with the intent or reason to believe that such information so obtained is to be used to the injury of the United States, or to the advantage of any foreign nation;
    • (2) intentionally accesses a computer without authorization or exceeds authorized access, and thereby obtains information contained in a financial record of a financial institution, or of a card issuer as defined in section 1602(n) of title 15, or contained in a file of a consumer reporting agency on a consumer, as such terms are defined in the Fair Credit Reporting Act (15 U.S.C. 1681 et seq.);
    • (3) intentionally, without authorization to access any computer of a department or agency of the United States, accesses such a computer of that department or agency that is exclusively for the use of the Government of the United States or, in the case of a computer not exclusively for such use, is used by or for the Government of the United States and such conduct adversely affects the use of the Government's operation of such computer;
    • (4) knowingly and with intent to defraud, accesses a Federal interest computer without authorization, or exceeds authorized access, and by means of such conduct furthers the intended fraud and obtains anything of value, unless the object of the fraud and the thing obtained consists only of the use of the computer;
    • (5)(A) through means of a computer used in interstate commerce or communications, knowingly causes the transmission of a program, information, code, or command to a computer or computer system if -
        • (i) the person causing the transmission intends that such transmission will - (I) damage, or cause damage to, a computer, computer system, network, information, data, or program; or (II) withhold or deny, or cause the withholding or denial, of the use of a computer, computer services, system or network, information, data or program; and
        • (ii) the transmission of the harmful component of the program, information, code, or command - (I) occurred without the authorization of the persons or entities who own or are responsible for the computer system receiving the program, information, code, or command; and (II)(aa) causes loss or damage to one or more other persons of value aggregating $1,000 or more during any 1-year period; or
  • (bb) modifies or impairs, or potentially modifies or impairs, the medical examination, medical diagnosis, medical treatment, or medical care of one or more individuals; or (B) through means of a computer used in interstate commerce or communication, knowingly causes the transmission of a program, information, code, or command to a computer or computer system -
    • (i) with reckless disregard of a substantial and unjustifiable risk that the transmission will - (I) damage, or cause damage to, a computer, computer system, network, information, data or program; or (II) withhold or deny or cause the withholding or denial of the use of a computer, computer services, system, network, information, data or program; and
    • (ii) if the transmission of the harmful component of the program, information, code, or command - (I) occurred without the authorization of the persons or entities who own or are responsible for the computer system receiving the program, information, code, or command; and (II)(aa) causes loss or damage to one or more other persons of a value aggregating $1,000 or more during any 1-year period; or (bb) modifies or impairs, or potentially modifies or impairs, the medical examination, medical diagnosis, medical treatment, or medical care of one or more individuals;

      (FOOTNOTE 1)

      (FOOTNOTE 1) So in original. Probably should be followed by "or". (6) knowingly and with intent to defraud traffics (as defined in section1029) in any password or similar information through which a computer may be accessed without authorization, if -

        • (A) such trafficking affects interstate or foreign commerce; or
        • (B) such computer is used by or for the Government of the United States; shall be punished as provided in subsection (c) of this section. (b) Whoever attempts to commit an offense under subsection (a) of this section shall be punished as provided in subsection (c) of this section.
  • (c) The punishment for an offense under subsection (a) or (b) of this section is -
    • (1)(A) a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than ten years, or both, in the case of an offense under subsection (a)(1) of this section which does not occur after a conviction for another offense under such subsection, or an attempt to commit an offense punishable under this subparagraph; and
      • (B) a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than twenty years, or both, in the case of an offense under subsection (a)(1) of this section which occurs after a conviction for another offense under such subsection, or an attempt to commit an offense punishable under this subparagraph; and (FOOTNOTE 2)

        (FOOTNOTE 2) So in original. The word "and" probably should not appear.

    • (2)(A) a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than one year, or both, in the case of an offense under subsection (a)(2), (a)(3) or (a)(6) of this section which does not occur after a conviction for another offense under such subsection, or an attempt to commit an offense punishable under this subparagraph; and
      • (B) a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than ten years, or both, in the case of an offense under subsection (a)(2), (a)(3) or (a)(6) of this section which occurs after a conviction for another offense under such subsection, or an attempt to commit an offense punishable under this subparagraph;
    • (3)(A) a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than five years, or both, in the case of an offense under subsection (a)(4) or (a)(5)(A) of this section which does not occur after a conviction for another offense under such subsection, or an attempt to commit an offense punishable under this subparagraph; and
      • (B) a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than ten years, or both, in the case of an offense under subsection (a)(4) or (a)(5) of this section which occurs after a conviction for another offense under such subsection, or an attempt to commit an offense punishable under this subparagraph; and
    • (4) a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than 1 year, or both, in the case of an offense under subsection (a)(5)(B).
  • (d) The United States Secret Service shall, in addition to any other agency having such authority, have the authority to investigate offenses under this section. Such authority of the United States Secret Service shall be exercised in accordance with an agreement which shall be entered into by the Secretary of the Treasury and the Attorney General.
  • (e) As used in this section -
    • (1) the term "computer" means an electronic, magnetic, optical, electrochemical, or other high speed data processing device performing logical, arithmetic, or storage functions, and includes any data storage facility or communications facility directly related to or operating in conjunction with such device, but such term does not include an automated typewriter or typesetter, a portable hand held calculator, or other similar device;
    • (2) the term "Federal interest computer" means a computer -
      • (A) exclusively for the use of a financial institution or the United States Government, or, in the case of a computer not exclusively for such use, used by or for a financial institution or the United States Government and the conduct constituting the offense affects the use of the financial institution's operation or the Government's operation of such computer; or
      • (B) which is one of two or more computers used in committing the offense, not all of which are located in the same State;
    • (3) the term "State" includes the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and any other commonwealth, possession or territory of the United States;
    • (4) the term "financial institution" means -
      • (A) an institution, with deposits insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation;
      • (B) the Federal Reserve or a member of the Federal Reserve including any Federal Reserve Bank;
      • (C) a credit union with accounts insured by the National Credit Union Administration;
      • (D) a member of the Federal home loan bank system and any home loan bank;
      • (E) any institution of the Farm Credit System under the Farm Credit Act of 1971;
      • (F) a broker-dealer registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to section 15 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934;
      • (G) the Securities Investor Protection Corporation;
      • (H) a branch or agency of a foreign bank (as such terms are defined in paragraphs (1) and (3) of section1(b) of the International Banking Act of 1978); and
      • (I) an organization operating under section 25 or section 25(a) (FOOTNOTE 3) of the Federal Reserve Act. (FOOTNOTE 4)

        (FOOTNOTE 3) See References in Text note below.

        (FOOTNOTE 4) So in original. The period probably should be a semicolon.

    • (5) the term "financial record" means information derived from any record held by a financial institution pertaining to a customer's relationship with the financial institution;
    • (6) the term "exceeds authorized access" means to access a computer with authorization and to use such access to obtain or alter information in the computer that the accesser is not entitled so to obtain or alter; and
    • (7) the term "department of the United States" means the legislative or judicial branch of the Government or one of the executive departments enumerated in section 101 of title 5.
  • (f) This section does not prohibit any lawfully authorized investigative, protective, or intelligence activity of a law enforcement agency of the United States, a State, or a political subdivision of a State, or of an intelligence agency of the United States.
  • (g) Any person who suffers damage or loss by reason of a violation of the (FOOTNOTE 5) section, other than a violation of subsection (a)(5)(B), may maintain a civil action against the violator to obtain compensatory damages and injunctive relief or other equitable relief. Damages for violations of any subsection other than subsection (a)(5)(A)(ii)(II)(bb) or
    • (a)(5)(B)(ii)(II)(bb) are limited to economic damages. No action may be brought under this subsection unless such action is begun within 2 years of the date of the act complained of or the date of the discovery of the damage.

      (FOOTNOTE 5) So in original. Probably should be "this".

  • (h) The Attorney General and the Secretary of the Treasury shall report to the Congress annually, during the first 3 years following the date of the enactment of this subsection, concerning investigations and prosecutions under section1030(a)(5) of title 18, United States Code.


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